Endometriomas with low-risk malignancy potential in ultrasonography with high human epididymis protein 4 and risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm: a cases series

Karacan T., Ozyurek E., Yesiralioglu S., Kiyak H., Usta T., Oral E.

GYNECOLOGICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease that affects 5 to 15% of women of reproductive age. Data from large-cohort and case-control studies indicate an increased risk for ovarian cancers in women with endometrioma. Recently, as an ovarian cancer biomarker, human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) has been increasingly investigated in the differentiating of endometrioma from ovary malignancy and in confirming the benign structure of the endometrioma. This case series study describes women who underwent surgery due to increased serum HE4 levels and higher Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) index, in whom the final pathology was reported as benign, although, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed features of "typical" endometrioma.