FOODS, vol.11, no.22, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in green extraction methods and green solvents due to their many advantages. In this study, the effects of an ultrasonic extraction method and deep eutectic solvents (DESs) on the extraction of different bioactive substances from bee pollen were investigated. In this regard, the effects of process variables such as the molar ratio of the DES (1, 1.5, and 2), sonication time (15, 30, and 45 min), and ultrasonic power (90, 135 and 180 W) on total individual amino acids, total individual organic acids, and total individual phenolic compounds were investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal conditions were found to be a molar ratio of 2, sonication time of 45 min, and ultrasonic power of 180 W (R-2 = 0.84). Extracts obtained via the maceration method using ethanol as a solvent were evaluated as the control group. Compared with the control group, the total individual amino acid and total individual organic acid values were higher using DESs. In addition, compounds such as myricetin, kaempferol, and quercetin were extracted at higher concentrations using DESs compared to controls. The results obtained in antimicrobial activity tests showed that the DES groups had broad-spectrum antibacterial effects against all bacterial samples, without exception. However, in yeast-like fungus samples, this inhibition effect was negligibly low. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of DESs on the extraction of bioactive substances from bee pollen. The obtained results show that this innovative and green extraction technique/solvent (ultrasonic extraction/DES) can be used successfully to obtain important bioactive compounds from bee pollen.