Behcet's disease (BD) is thought to be caused by multiple genetic, environmental and immunological factors, one of the most prominent being the strong association with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-Bw51, an HLA-Bw4-associated allele. We examined the presence/absence of 14 killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their ligands in 134 Turkish individuals with BD and compared the results with those of 154 ethnically matched controls. Although KIR3DL1 with its ligand (HLA-Bw4) was significantly increased in the patients with BD (P = 0.0003), this no longer applied when the patients and controls were categorised by HLA-Bw51 status. Thus, no association was identified between presence or absence of any of the 14 KIR genes studied and BD. In addition, we did not find any associations of KIR with various manifestations of the disease nor with gender or age of onset.