Morphological, anatomical and ecological characteristics of Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) L. C. M. Richard in Turkey were investigated in this study. Plant materials of A. pyramidalis were provided from 21 native populations between 2007 and 2009 in Turkey, and their localities were recorded. A. pyramidalis samples were evaluated within 19 morphological, 20 anatomical, and 18 soil characters & habitat properties. The findings of this study are as follows: The plant length was minimum 248 mm and maximum 655 Iran, underground part length minimum 23 mm and maximum 140 mm, and number of leaves change between 2 and 14. The leaves were tetrastic, had no trichomes. In surface section of the leaves, the cuticle thickness (abaxial and adaxial), epidermis cell size (abaxial and adaxial) stomata dimensions and stomata index were measured. The epidermal cells' rows were parellel to the midrib. In cross sections of the leaves, upper epidermis was larger than lower epidermis. Vascular bundles were collateral and consist of xylem, phloem and sclerenchyma cells. Raphide bundles were observed in the mesophyll tissue and leaf midrib had lacunas. Chlorenchyma had scattered homogeneously. According to habitat definition of A. pyramidalis it grows from sea level to 1600 m whereas the most common habitat of A. pyramidalis are meadow, macchie and gaps in the forest lands. A. pyramidalis are grown in stony soils and also are rich in clay, and medium in organic carbon. pH of the soils differ from 6.77 to 7.54.