Presence of hypertension might pose a potential pitfall in detection of diabetes mellitus non-invasively using the second derivative of photoplethysmography


Taş A., Alan Y., Kara I., Savas A., Bayhan M. I., Ekici D., ...More

Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging and Visualization, vol.11, no.7, 2024 (ESCI) identifier

Abstract

Indices derived from photoplethysmography (PPG) have shown promising results as non-invasive digital biomarkers for the detection of diabetes mellitus (DM). Considering the mutual endothelial insult leading to similar undesirable peripheral hemodynamic perturbations, hypertension (HT) may blunt this classification performance. Second derivative PPG (SD-PPG) indices were derived from the second derivative of the PPG signal. The variables of interest were the previously described peaks of the initial positive (a), early negative (b), re-increasing (c), late re-decreasing (d), diastolic positive (e) and negative (f) waves and the ratios between them. Patients were classified according to their type 2 DM and hypertension phenotypes. SD-PPG indices were compared between diseased subgroups, healthy controls and also dichotomous classification performance was evaluated. Two SDPPG indices, b/a ratio and the vascular ageing index (VAI = (b-c-d-e)/a) responded to isolated DM type 2 (n = 29) amongst healthy subjects (n = 106) (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.629 p = 0.034 and 0.631 p = 0.031 20 respectively). However, the classification performance became insignificant with the inclusion of HT patients (n=30). (p = 0.839 vs. p = 0.656). These results suggest that the coexistence of HT and DM may hinder the use of SD-PPG for noninvasive DM detection.