Controversy remains regarding the best surgical approach for toxic multinodular goiter (MNG). The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of various thyroid operations for managing toxic MNG. A group of 100 patients with toxic MNG were divided into three groups and managed with total thyroidectomy (TT; group 1, n-17), near-total thyroidectomy (NIT; group 11, n = 48), or bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy (BST; group III, n = 35). Patients were compared with regard to age, gender, surgical operations, complications, thyroid hormone status, duration of hospitalization, and the reoperation rate for incidentally found thyroid carcinomas. There were 14 men (14%) and 86 women (86 %) with a mean age of 47.03 +/- 3.56 years (range 19-77 years). After the operation two patients had a hematoma, and one patient had a seroma. Four patients had unilateral vocal cord paralysis, and one had permanent paralysis. Moreover, 18 patients had transient and 2 patients permanent hypocalcernia. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding complications (p < 0.05). Permanent hypothyroidism was achieved in all patients in group I and 44 patients (92 %) in group 11, whereas in group III only 10 (29%) patients had hypothyroidism. Conversely, hyperthyroidism, both subclinical and clinical, was noted only in group III (12 patients, 34 %) during follow-up. We think that Tr and NTT are safe, effective approaches in the treatment of toxic MNG, preventing recurrence of thyrotoxicosis and reoperation for incidentally found thyroid cancers. The complication rates for TT and NTT were similar to that for BST. Hence these operation should be considered for patients referred for surgical treatment of toxic MNG.