Only a small percentage of patients with pancreatic cancer have limited disease suitable for curative resection. Even with surgery, patients often have poor long-term survival due to relapse of the disease. There are controversies about the adjuvant treatment of these patients. We reported the survival of resected pancreatic cancer from a single institute. About 128 consecutive patients who had complete resection of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were evaluated, retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy (45 Gy plus 5-fluorouracil) was given to 63 patients. Fifty-five patients declined to take chemoradio-therapy or with poor performance status were observed without additional treatment. Eight patients took only chemotherapy and two patients took only radiotherapy. The median survival of chemoradiotherapy group was significantly higher than the observation group (13 months vs. 4 months, respectively; P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses the most important factors improving survival were the application of chemoradiation (P < 0.001), low-level serum LDH (P = 0.026), good performance status (P = 0.033) and low serum CA19-9 (P = 0.037). Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy has a significant survival benefit when compared with the observation group, the survival data are still poor for pancreatic cancer. Therefore, we need more effective additional or adjuvant treatment modalities.