Probiotics have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri PTA 5289 and L. paracasei DSMZ16671 on the adhesion of a reference strain and a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and on the counts of MS in a biofilm. The adhesion of S. mutans Ingbritt and the clinical isolate S. mutans 2366 to a smooth glass surface and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA) were studied in the presence of and without the lactobacilli. A three-species biofilm formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs was used in the biofilm experiments. The lactobacilli did not affect adhesion to the glass surface but interfered with binding to SHA. No effects of the lactobacilli were detected on the MS levels in the three-species biofilms. The results of the SHA binding experiments best reflected the results of the existing clinical studies.