Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder which is associated with a variety of congenital anomalies. These include morphometric abnormalities involving mainly the head and face, skeletal malformations particularly of the radial ray, growth retardation, abnormal skin pigmentation, deafness, and renal, ocular, genital, and cardiac defects. The cardinal clinical feature is a severe progressive pancytopenia. The overall aim of our study was to compare two different alkylating agents that would permit rapid and unequivocal detection of FA. A total of 271 patients underwent nitrogen mustard (NTM) and diepoxybutane (DEB) tests in our laboratory; baseline chromosomal breakage was studied for all of them. After the results of the chromosomal breakage studies, 72 patients were diagnosed as affected and 136 patients as unaffected by FA. We also studied 63 family members of FA patients. According to our study, NTM seems more specific to identify chromosomal breakages in FA parents than DEB.