Virtual endoscopy is becoming a widely used non-invasive clinical diagnostic tool. The present study was designed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the conventional endoscopy and virtual laryngoscopy with respect to laryngeal masses. A total of 38 patients (20 males, 18 females, mean age 61 years) with the complaint of hoarseness were included in the study. Laryngeal mucosa, lumen and mass pathology were evaluated initially by direct endoscopy and then by virtual laryngoscopy during multislice CT of the larynx. Histopathologic evaluation of the masses was also made. The main pathology of the patients was found to be laryngeal masses (60% of patients, one mass for each patient), which were polyps (n = 8), papilloma (n = 4) and carcinoma (n = 11) according to histopathologic evaluation. Retrospective evaluation of 6 lesions detected in virtual but not in conventional laryngoscopy resulted with the finding of viscous-dense mucous secretion. On the contrary, three lesions detected by conventional laryngoscopy could not be detected by virtual evaluation. A total of six patients were evaluated and considered as normal both by conventional and virtual laryngoscopic examinations. Sensitivity of the virtual laryngoscopy was 88% (23/26) while its specificity was only 50% (6/12). Positive and negative predictive values were 79% (23/29) and 66% (6/9), respectively. Accuracy of the virtual laryngoscopy was 76% (29/38). Virtual laryngoscopy is not an alternative to conventional laryngoscopy but may assist direct endoscopy without causing additional radiation exposure or discomfort to the patient. The three-dimensional contribution to interpretation of the results and subsequent manipulation of the data can be used for educational and surgical purposes.