Nakipoglu Y., Gumus D., Selale D. S. , Kucuker M. A.

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.43, no.4, pp.545-551, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.545-551


sonra eklenir

The widespread use of antimicrobial agents in the hospitals and environmental contamination with heavy metals are increasingly related to resistance progression in microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance of enterococci to high level aminoglycosides and some heavy metals [lead (Pb(+2)), cadmium (Cd(+2)), mercury (Hg(+2)), arsenic (As(+5))]. A total of 39 Enterococcus strains, isolated from stool and rectal swabs of hospitalized patients were included to the study. Twenty of the strains were resistant to glycopeptides (11 were resistant to vancomycin + teicoplanin and 9 were resistant to only vancomycin). Disk diffusion method was performed to determine the high level resistance to aminoglycosides (gentamicin 120 mu g and streptomycin 300 mu g), and agar dilution method was used to detect the sensitivities of the strains against different concentrations (0.005-20 mM begin_of_the_skype_highlighting 005-20 mM ÜCRETSİZ end_of_the_skype_highlighting) of heavy metals. Since there is no specified minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints for heavy metals, resistance criteria described in previous studies were used. Accordingly, enterococci which exhibited MIC >= 1 mM for lead and cadmium, MIC >= 0.1 mM for mercury, and MIC >= 10 mM for arsenic were accepted as resistant. High level aminoglycoside (HLAG) resistance rates were found as 91% (10/11) for vancomycin (V) + teicoplanin (T) resistant and 42% (8/19) for glycopeptide susceptible strains. While all of the isolates were resistant to lead (100%), arsenic (2.6%) and mercury (2.6%) resistance was detected in one isolate for each metal. No cadmium resistance has been detected. In our study, enterococci have exhibited seven different resistance profiles (10 strains were resistant to V + T + HLAG + Pb; 1 was resistant to V + T + Pb; 1 was resistant to V + As + Pb; 1 was resistant to HLAG + Hg + Pb; 8 were resistant to V + Pb; 7 were resistant to HLAG + Pb; 11 were only resistant to Pb). Resistance to antibiotics (aminoglycosides and/or vancomycin and/or teicoplanin) and heavy metals (lead and arsenic and/or mercury) were detected concurrently in 28 (%71.8) of the strains. It was considered remarkable that all of the isolates were resistant to lead and there was no difference between antibiotic-resistant and-susceptible strains in terms of lead resistance. In conclusion, further investigations are needed to reveal the extreme lead resistance and the relations between antibiotic and heavy metal resistances in clinical enterococcus strains.