An infection which is associated with surgical procedures is described as surgical site infections (SSIs). These infections are classified into incisional, organ, or other organs/spaces manipulated during an operation; incisional infections are further divided into superficial (skin and subcutaneous tissue) and deep (deep soft tissue-muscle and fascia). SSIs are the most common nosocomial infections among hospitalized surgical patients and are the third most common one among all hospitalized patients. In spite of advances in infection control practices including improved operating room ventilation, sterilization methods, surgical techniques, and availability of antibiotic prophylaxis; SSIs cause important morbidity and mortality for the surgical patients. A complex interplay between host, microbial, and surgical factors ultimately determines the prevention or establishment of an SSI. Understanding these factors, may decrease the incidence of SSIs. The aim of this review was to discuss the risk factors and prevention measures of SSIs under the light of the current literature.