In vitro cytotoxicity and xanthine oxidase inhibition capabilities were investigated for five palladium (II) chelate complexes. The palladium complexes were synthesized by starting from S-alkyl-thiosemicarbazones where the alkyl component is methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl. The solid complexes are characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques (UV-visible, IR and 1H NMR). In order to be able to verify the N2O2-type thiosemicarbazidato ligand (L2-) structure in the square planar geometry, complex 1 has been studied as a representative by using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The in vitro cytotoxic activity measurements were carried out in HepG2 and Hep3B hepatocellular carcinomas, HCT116 colorectal carcinoma, and 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cell lines. The palladium complexes exhibited notable cytotoxic activities in all cell lines at lower mu M concentrations compared to the standard chemicals, cisplatin and allopurinol. IC50 values were determined between 0.42 +/- 0.01 and 12.01 +/- 0.37 mu g/ml in examining the antixanthine oxidase abilities of the complexes. Two complexes with S-methyl group exhibited a high inhibition activity on the xanthine oxidase. The results indicated that these complexes could be used as active pharmaceutical ingredients.