BackgroundTransitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for around 95% of bladder cancers and is the 4th most common cancer among men and the tenth most common in women, in the US. There is a constant need to clarify current TCC incidence and mortality rates among different population groups for better clinical practice guidelines. We aimed to describe the TCC incidence and incidence-based mortality by demographic and tumor-related characteristics over the last 40years in the US.MethodsWe obtained data from the SEER 18 registries to study TCC cases that were diagnosed between the years 1973 and 2014. We calculated incidence rates and incidence-based mortality rates in different demographic and tumor-related characteristics and expressed rates by 100,000 person-years. We then calculated the annual changes in incidence and incidence-based mortality rates and displayed them as annual percent changes (APCs).ResultsThere were 182,114 patients with TCC between 1973 and 2014 in the United States. Overall incidence rates of TCC increased 0.16% (95% CI, 0.02-0.30, p=.02) per year over the study period. However, the incidence declined significantly since 2007; (95%CI,-1.89- -0.77, p<.001), except among the elderly and African Americans, which increased significantly over the study period. Overall TCC mortality rates did not change over the study period. However, since 2000 it started to decrease significantly.ConclusionTCC incidence and incidence-based mortality rates had been showing significant increases over the previous decades. However, significant declines in both incidence and incidence-based mortality rates have been observed over the recent years, except in some patients with certain racial groups. Improved understanding of the etiological and ecological factors of TCC could lead to further declines in incidence and incidence-based mortality rates.