Utilization of Response Surface Methodology in Optimization of Proline Extraction from Castanea sativa Honey

Ecem Bayram N., Kutlu N., Can Gercek Y. C.

CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY, vol.20, no.3, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/cbdv.202201092
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Castanea sativa, chestnut, honey, optimization, proline
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Proline constitutes approximately 85 % of the amino acid composition of honey. Therefore, the quantitative determination of this amino acid in honey samples is used by many national/international authorities to evaluate the quality of honey types. In this study, it was aimed to achieve maximum proline amino acid extraction from honey samples whose botanical origins were confirmed by melissopalynological analysis. For this reason, based on three different spectrophotometric methods used in the literature for proline analysis, proline extraction was optimized with the Response Surface Method (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. Three independent variables were determined as treatment time (2, 6, and 10 min), treatment temperature (22, 46, and 70 degrees C), and cooling time (5, 25, and 45 min). As a result of the optimization, it was seen that only significantly effective independent variable on the proline content of honey was the processing temperature. The optimum conditions obtained as a result of the RSM were found to be 2 min for the treatment time, 70 degrees C for the treatment temperature and 45 min for the cooling time. The composite desirability of the optimum conditions (R-2) was found to be 1.00. It was determined that the method proposed by International Honey Commission (IHC) is efficient for proline analysis, but it provides more proline extraction by reducing of time from 10 min to 2 min in hold time in boiling water bath only during the extraction step. As a result, the conditions to be used in order to achieve maximum proline extraction with different spectrophotometric methods were determined and optimum values were determined. In addition, since the botanical origin of honey samples significantly affects the proline content of honey, it can be suggested that this study be optimized for different monofloral honey samples as well.