This article presents a review of the literature regarding the use of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). There have been two different approaches to the treatment: (a) percutaneous tumor ablation methods which can be divided into injectable and thermal methods; percutaneous ethanol injection (PET) is the most widely used method, and (b) TACE. PEI is the treatment of choice for single HCCs smaller or equal to 3 rm in size. For patients with large HCCs combined TACE and PET is probably the most effective nonsurgical treatment. Tn the presence of multiple HCC nodules, TACE remains the treatment of choice. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.