It is unclear whether AI of mares deep into the uterine horn causes more or less inflammation of the endometrium than conventional AI. Thus, we compared uterine inflammatory reactions of mares inseminated with two different doses of frozen-thawed semen into the tip of the uterine horn (UH) ipsilateral to the preovulatory follicle with those of mares inseminated into the uterine body (UB). Thirty-two mares were assigned to one of four groups (eight mares/group): UB20 = AI into UB, 20 x 10(6) sperm/0.5 mL; UB200 AI into UB, 200 x 10(6) sperm/0.5 mL; UH20 = AI into UH, 20 x 10(6) sperm/0.5 mL; UH200 = AI into UH, 200 x 10(6) spern/0.5 mL, and inseminated 24 h after hCG administration. Before and 24 h after AI, they were examined with ultrasonography for the presence of intrauterine fluid. At 24 h, uterine fluid samples were obtained first by absorbing fluid into a tampon and then by uterine lavage. Uterine fluid was examined for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and bacteriology, and frozen for lysozyme and TIC (trypsin-inhibitor capacity) assays. Only three mares conceived, one in each of the following groups: UB200, UH20, and UH200. Mares in the UH20 group accumulated less intrauterine fluid (p < 0.05) than those in the other groups, which had similar amounts. No significant differences in PMN numbers were detected in either tampon or lavage fluid. Enzyme levels between groups did not differ statistically, except for TIC, which was lowest in the UH200 group. Thus, deep uterine horn AI caused no greater inflammation or irritation than uterine body AI in normal mares 24 h after insemination. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.