Does economic openness affect liberal and electoral democracy in a different way? Empirical evidence from developing countries

Kablamaci B.

SCOTTISH JOURNAL OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol.66, no.3, pp.404-433, 2019 (SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/sjpe.12193
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.404-433
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: No


The focus of this paper was to empirically analyze the impacts of economic liberalization on the liberal and electoral democracy in a sample of 106 less developed and developing countries over the period 1970-2016. The economic relationship between these countries and the global trade and the financial system generates a crucial question of to what extent political conditions are affected by this changing relation. To test these relationships, this paper uses V-Dem's liberal democracy and electoral democracy indices and nine economic liberalization variables. Utilizing two-step system dynamic panel GMM estimation indicates that trade openness and economic globalization, de facto strongly affects electoral democracy.