Objective. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), the prototype of autoinflammatory disorders, is caused by recessive mutations in the MEFV gene. Some FMF patients develop renal amyloidosis, a potentially fatal condition. This complication has mainly been associated with the M694V mutation, although the different study designs, small numbers of patients, and/or evaluation of few or no covariables calls this association into question. The aim of this study was to examine the controversial issue of amyloidosis susceptibility in FMF by determining the relative contributions of MEFV and numerous epidemiologic factors to the risk of renal amyloidosis.