Pelvic and breast ultrasound abnormalities and associated metabolic disturbances in girls with premature pubarche due to adrenarche.

Aydin B. K., Kadioglu A., Kaya G. A., Devecioglu E., Baş F., Poyrazoğlu Ş., ...More

Clinical endocrinology, vol.96, no.3, pp.339-345, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 96 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/cen.14662
  • Journal Name: Clinical endocrinology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Gender Studies Database, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.339-345
  • Keywords: breast ultrasonography, metabolic syndrome, obesity, pelvic ultrasonography, premature adrenarche, CHILDREN AGED 6, PRECOCIOUS PUBARCHE, BODY-MASS, GROWTH, MENARCHE, ONSET, BIRTH, HYPERINSULINISM, COMPONENTS, THELARCHE
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Objective Premature adrenarche (PA) has been suggested as a risk factor for future health problems, such as metabolic syndrome and early menarche. However, not all girls with PA have these features and it is not certain who will develop them. We propose that these abnormalities might be identified earlier, even before they are visible. Design Case-control study. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Participants Forty-eight girls with premature pubarche due to PA and age (mean age 7.6 +/- 1.0 years), weight, body mass index (BMI), birth weight and gestational age-matched 49 girls with no palpable breast tissue. Measurements Early pubertal pelvic and breast ultrasonographic changes and their associations with obesity and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Blood samples were collected, breast and pelvic ultrasound examinations were performed and bone ages were assessed. Results Girls with PA were taller and their bone ages were higher (p = .049 and p = .005). Fasting blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not different between the groups. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol were not different either. Ultrasonography revealed breast gland tissue in 30% of girls with PA and 5% of controls (p = .006). Uterine volume and endometrial thickness were higher in girls with PA (p = .03 and p = .04). Endometrial thickness was positively associated with serum insulin levels in the whole study group and after adjusting for age, diagnosis, BMI, mean ovarian volume and LH, FSH, estradiol levels, this association remained with a borderline p-value (R-2 = 0.486, p = .050). Conclusions We found early changes in uterus and breast glands of girls with PA and endometrial thickness was positively associated with insulin levels.