The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of anemia detected in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and the effect of disease activity and colchicine therapy along with inteleukins to laboratory tests, including serum transferrin receptor (TfR), in the diagnosis of anemia seen in FMF in children. After detecting anemia in 63.4% of 172 FMF patients followed up by our rheumatology outpatient polyclinics, it was decided to study 3 groups of patients: group 1, 17 newly diagnosed FMF patients; group 2, 36 FMF patients on colchicine therapy; and group 3, 17 healthy children as control for the symptom of anemia. All 3 groups of patients were investigated for their hematological parameters, iron status, including soluble transferrin receptor (sTFR) concentrations and sTFR index, and IL-6 levels. Anemia ratio was 9/17, 53%; 11/36, 31%; and 1/17, 5% in the groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There was a significant difference between hemoglobin (Hb) values in the first group and the second (patients who were on colchicine therapy). Furthermore, in the second group there was a significant difference between the Hb concentrations at the time of diagnosis and after colchicine therapy (p = .003). There was a positive correlation between Hb and plasma iron and transferrin saturation in group 1 and disease beginning age, iron, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in the second group. In the first group the anemic patients' iron and transferrin saturation were significantly lower than normal, while ferritin levels were higher. In the second group, a good correlation was found with ESR and Hb levels; the higher ESR values were detected in patients with lower Hb values. Of the anemic and nonanemic patients of the first and second groups, values for interleukin 6 and iron parameters, including sTFR, were found similar. Anemia detected in FMF patients was found related to iron status more than interleukins. Colchicine therapy had a positive effect on anemia as well as on disease activity. Resolution of symptoms of FMF occurred with correction of the anemia, if the patient ESR values also decreased on colchicine therapy.