THE GRAVESTONE SCULPTORS AND THE MAKER'S MARKS AT THE HAYDARPASA BRITISH CEMETERY


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SAĞ M. K., KESKİN M. Ç.

SANAT TARIHI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY, vol.29, no.1, pp.229-251, 2020 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.29135/std.658699
  • Journal Name: SANAT TARIHI DERGISI-JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Directory of Open Access Journals, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.229-251
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The Haydarpasa British Cemetery was first established in the Crimean War (18531856) for the British soldiers who died during the war and from 1867 onwards opened to the burial of the British civilians. The layout of the cemetery matches the design of the Victorian cemeteries which became widespread during the period of the Queen Victoria's reign (1837-1901). The main components building this layout in the Haydarpasa British Cemetery are the location, the landscape arrangement, the Scutari Monument erected by the Queen Victoria and the design of the gravestones. In this paper first the origins and the components of the Victorian cemeteries will be examined in terms of their interaction with the classical and late Ottoman cemeteries. Afterwards the designs of the gravestones, which contribute significantly to the Victorian character of the Haydarpasa British Cemetery will be investigated through their manufacturer sculptors and the identities of the people buried in these graves. The maker's marks, which are today barely seen on the bases of these gravestones, indicate that they were mostly produced in Britain and brought to Istanbul on order. These marks, which could be easily overlooked were used by the Victorian artisans widely to show their names and addresses as trademark signs and were also adopted by the local gravestone sculptors in Istanbul. For the researchers studying the art and architecture of the late Ottoman cemeteries they offer a new methodology, enabling to reach the manufacturer's other works via the contact information and provide the possibility of an analogy on the design analysis.