The Characteristics of Patients With COVID-19-Associated Pediatric Vasculitis: An International, Multicenter Study.

Batu E. D., Sener S., Ozomay Baykal G., Arslanoglu Aydin E., Özdel S., Gagro A., ...More

Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.), vol.75, no.4, pp.499-506, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 75 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/art.42411
  • Journal Name: Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.499-506
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Objective. COVID-19-associated pediatric vasculitis, otherthan Kawasaki disease (KD)-like vasculitis in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), is very rare. This study sought to analyze the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients with COVID-19-associated pediatric vasculitis (excluding KD-like vasculitis in MIS-C).Methods. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age < 18 years at vasculitis onset; 2) evidence of vasculitis; 3) evidence of SARS-CoV-2 exposure; and 4) <= 3 months between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vasculitis onset. Patients with MIS-C were excluded. The features of the subset of patients in our cohort who had COVID-19-associated pediatric IgA vasculitis/Henoch Schonlein purpura (IgAV/HSP) were compared against a pre-pandemic cohort of pediatric IgAV/HSP patients.Results. Forty-one patients (median age 8.3 years; male to female ratio 1.3) were included from 14 centers and 6 countries. The most frequent vasculitis subtype was IgAV/HSP (n = 30). The median duration between SARS-CoV-2 exposure and vasculitis onset was 13 days. Involvement of the skin (92.7%) and of the gastrointestinal system (61%) were the most common manifestations of vasculitis. Most patients (68.3%) received glucocorticoids, and 14.6% also received additional immunosuppressive drugs. Remission was achieved in all patients. All of the patients with IgAV/HSP in our cohort had skin manifestations, while 18 (60%) had gastrointestinal involvement and 13 (43.3%) had renal involvement. When we compared the features of this subset of 30 patients to those of a pre-pandemic pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (n = 159), the clinical characteristics of fever and renal involvement were more common in our COVID-19-associated pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (fever, 30% versus 5%, respectively [P < 0.001]; renal involvement, 43.3% versus 17.6%, respectively [P = 0.002]). Recovery without treatment and complete recovery were each less frequent among our COVID-19-associated pediatric IgAV/HSP patients compared to the pre-pandemic pediatric IgAV/HSP cohort (recovery without treatment, 10% versus 39%, respectively [P = 0.002]; complete recovery, 86.7% versus 99.4%, respectively [P = 0.002]).Conclusion. This is the largest cohort of children with COVID-19-associated vasculitis (excluding MIS-C) studied to date. Our findings suggest that children with COVID-19-associated IgAV/HSP experience a more severe disease course compared to pediatric IgAV/HSP patients before the pandemic.