The demonstration of antiplatelet antibodies (PAIgG, PAIgM) and decreased detection of platelet surface antigens (CD41, CD61, CD42b) in children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) have a diagnostic role. This study was conducted to determine whether these parameters differed in acute and chronic ITP. Chronic ITP was defined as thrombocytopenia persisting for more than 6 months from the onset of illness. A total of 80 subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 included 39 patients with acute ITP; group 2 included 31 patients with chronic ITP, and group 3 included 10 healthy children. At diagnosis, blood samples were obtained for platelet count, mean platelet volume, plateletcrit and platelet distribution width along with platelet surface antigens and antiplatelet immunoglobulins. We found that platelet surface antigens were significantly decreased in both acute and chronic ITP when compared to the control group (p = 0.001). In contrast, PAIgG was increased in acute and chronic ITP patients compared to the control group. PAIgM was significantly higher in acute ITP. We conclude that decreased platelet surface antigens and increased antiplatelet antibodies are observed in both acute and chronic ITP. In patients with chronic progress, a relatively lower level of PAIgM can be identified. Copyright (C) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.