Changing Bacterial Etiology and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles as Prognostic Determinants of Diabetic Foot Infections: A Ten-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

Surme S., SALTOĞLU N., KURT A. F., KARAALİ R., BALKAN İ. İ., Baghaki S., ...More

SURGICAL INFECTIONS, vol.23, no.7, pp.667-674, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1089/sur.2022.150
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.667-674
  • Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, diabetic foot infection, micro-organism, surveillance, ULCER PATIENTS, RISK-FACTORS
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Background: In this single-center study, we analyzed a retrospective cohort of patients with diabetic foot infections (DFIs) between 2011 and 2020.Patients and Methods: The first and second five-year periods were compared. A poor prognosis was defined as a primary composite end point including re-infection, major amputation, or mortality at six months.Results: A total of 484 patients were enrolled. Overall, 269 patients had the primary composite end point. A substantial decrease was detected in the second five-year period in terms of re-infection (n = 132, 66.0% vs. n = 68, 23.9%; p < 0.001) and mortality (n = 22, 11.0% vs. n = 7, 2.5%; p < 0.001). A total of 798 micro-organisms were isolated from 484 patients. A substantial increase was detected in polymicrobial infections (48.5% vs. 65.1%; p = 0.001) as well as Streptococcus spp. (2.5% vs. 9.2%; p = 0.003), Corynebacterium spp. (9.5% vs. 22.9%; p < 0.001), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli (3.0% vs. 12.7%; p < 0.001) in the second five-year period, whereas the prevalence of multi-drug-resistanct (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.0% vs. 10.2%; p = 0.029) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (7.5% vs. 2.8%; p = 0.017) decreased. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (odds ratio [OR], 1.917; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.074-3.420; p = 0.028) and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (OR, 3.069; 95% CI, 1.114-8.453; p = 0.030) were independent predictors for poor prognosis.Conclusions: This 10-year cohort study provides reassuring information about the changing epidemiology of DFIs and the prognostic determinants in patients with DFIs.