Estimation of Sex from the Dimensions of Foot, Footprints, and Shoe

Atamturk D.

ANTHROPOLOGISCHER ANZEIGER, vol.68, no.1, pp.21-29, 2010 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 68 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1127/0003-5548/2010/0026
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.21-29
  • Keywords: Forensic science, forensic anthropology, human identification, discriminant functions, sex allocation, POLYNESIAN SKELETAL REMAINS, NORTH-INDIA, STATURE, IDENTIFICATION, POPULATION, CALCANEUS, PATHOLOGISTS, IMPRESSIONS, GUJJARS, FEMUR
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


This study intends to determine if the sex of an individual can be identified by foot lengths, shoe lengths, and/or footprints. For this purpose, foot length, foot breadth, and foot heel breadth of 506 subjects, comprising 253 females and 253 males ranging from 17.56 to 82.92 years of age, were taken. In addition, the footprints (length, breadth, and heel breadth) and footwear (length and breadth) of the same subjects were measured. Finally, the shoe size of the subjects was recorded. Univariate and multivariate discriminant function models were developed for sex allocations. Statistical analyses indicated that univariate models correctly assign approximately 67-94% of individuals to their correct sex groups. Among univariate models the most reliable measurement was shoe length. The results of multivariate models were better than those of univariate ones, with an approximately 82-96% correct assignment. The best multivariate model was comprised of four variables: foot length, shoe length, shoe breadth and shoe size. It could be suggested that these discriminant functions can provide useful clues to establish personal identity whenever complete or partial feet, footprints, or footwear are recovered.