The jet fragmentation function of inclusive jets with transverse momentum p(T) above 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions has been measured using reconstructed charged particles with p(T) above 1 GeV/c in a cone of radius 0.3 around the jet axis. A data sample of PbPb collisions collected in 2011 at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 150 mu b(-1) is used. The results for PbPb collisions as a function of collision centrality and jet transverse momentum are compared to reference distributions based on pp data collected at the same center-of-mass energy in 2013, with an integrated luminosity of 5.3 pb(-1). A centrality-dependent modification of the fragmentation function is found. For the most central collisions, a significant enhancement is observed in the PbPb/pp fragmentation function ratio for charged particles with p(T) less than 3 GeV/c. This enhancement is observed for all jet p(T) bins studied.