Objectives A large amount of fructose is metabolized in the liver and causes hepatic functional damage. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as a therapeutic agent for clinical and experimental applications. The study aims to investigate the effects of THC treatment on inflammation, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in rat liver with hyperinsulinemia. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups: control, fructose (10% fructose in drinking water for 12 weeks), THC (1.5 mg/kg/day for the last 4 weeks, intraperitoneally) and fructose+THC groups. Biochemical parameters were measured spectrophotometrically. ELISA method was used for insulin measurement. Apoptosis and inflammation markers were detected by the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method. Key findings The consumptions of food and fluid are inversely proportional to fructose and non-fructose groups. Insulin levels were the highest in fructose group. The reduced glutathione-S-transferase level significantly increased in fructose + THC group compared with fructose group. Total cholesterol level in the fructose + THC group was higher than the fructose group. Caspase-3 and NF-kappa beta immunopositive cell numbers increased in fructose + THC rats compared with fructose group. The number of IL-6 immunopositive cell decreased in fructose + THC group compared with fructose group. Conclusions According to the result, long-term and low-dose THC administration may reduce hyperinsulinemia and inflammation in rats to some extent.