We report on an eight-year-old girl with acute pericarditis and transient erythroblastopenia associated with human parvovirus B19 (PVB19) infection. The patient presented with complaints of fever, chest pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath. On physical examination, she had tachycardia, hepatomegaly, and muffled heart sounds. Teleradiography exhibited cardiomegaly and echocardiography showed a pericardial effusion of 25 mm. Serum anti-PVB19 IgM and PVB19 DNA were positive. The patient developed anemia and reticulocytopenia in the second week, both of which persisted for two weeks then resolved spontaneously. At the end of three months, pericardial effusion resolved, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were normal, and serum anti-PVB19 IgM was negative. This case represents the first report of acute pericarditis associated with PVB19 infection in a pediatric patient.