Objectives: Renal transplant is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Ischemia-reperfusion damage is a major cause of early renal dysfunction during the perioperative period. lschemic hypoxic damage increases local inflammation, leading to secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Anesthetic conditioning is a widely described strategy to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on serum proinflammatory cytokines and urine chemokines in living-donor kidney transplant recipients.