Age-related changes in concept formation, rule switching, and perseverative behaviors: A study using WCST with 12 unidimensional target cards

Cinan S.

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, vol.21, no.3, pp.377-382, 2006 (Journal Indexed in SSCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2006.03.002
  • Title of Journal : COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Page Numbers: pp.377-382


This study examined developmental changes in concept formation, rule switching, and perseverative behaviors of children in the WCST by altering visual features of the test and using a new test score-the izigzag' error score-which shows the number of shifts made between two incorrect concepts or rules. Instead of the original four 3-dimensional WCST target cards, 12 unidimensional target cards were used in the present study. Consistent with previous research using the original WCST, the results of the current study revealed age-related differences in the unidimensional WCST performance. Six-to seven-year-olds produced more perseverative errors than older children, but as many zigzag errors-shifts between incorrect categories -as the eight-to nine-year-olds did. This suggested that the main difficulty for six-to seven-year-olds was one of the representational inflexibility rather than of switching inflexibility. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.