There are recent studies which aimed to detect the inheritance on the etiology of dental caries exploring oral composition. We present data on the oral microbiota and its relation with dental caries and other factors in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin children. Following clinical investigation, DNA samples were collected and isolated from saliva of 198 patients (49 MZ and 50 DZ twins) with an average age of 9.72.7 years. Salivary bacterial microbiota analysis was performed using high throughput amplicon sequencing method targeting V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 8,297,859 raw reads corresponding to 41,908 reads per sample were obtained on average. The QIIME2-deblur workflow was used for 16S rRNA amplicon analysis. Microbiome similarity analyses between twins (based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, weighted and unweighted Unifrac distances) showed that monozygotic twins share more bacterial microbial content compared to dizygotic twins. This is a large microbial community dataset of MZ and DZ twins with or without dental findings which can be further used for children oral microbiome profile explorations.