A Case of Budd-Chiari Syndrome Associated With Antiphospholipid Syndrome Treated Successfully by Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt


Torun E. S. , Erciyestepe M., Yalcinkaya Y. , Gul A., Inanc M. , Ocal L. , ...More

CLINICAL MEDICINE INSIGHTS-CASE REPORTS, vol.15, 2022 (Journal Indexed in ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/11795476221100595
  • Title of Journal : CLINICAL MEDICINE INSIGHTS-CASE REPORTS
  • Keywords: Antiphospholipid syndrome, Budd Chiari syndrome, tranjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

Abstract

Budd Chiari syndrome (BCS) is defined as obstruction of hepatic venous outflow that can be located anywhere from small hepatic venules up to the entrance of inferior vena cava (IVC) into right atrium. Etiologies of BCS include myeloproliferative disorders, congenital, and acquired hypercoagulable states. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for all cases of BCS with a demonstrable hypercoagulable state. Interventional radiology procedures such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) can be utilized to reduce portal hypertension and to improve complications related to portal hypertension. We present a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who first presented with fever, weight loss, malar rash, alopecia, livedo reticularis, symmetric polyarthritis, pancytopenia, and class IV lupus nephritis when she was 23 years old. After receiving an induction treatment of cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids, she received a maintenance treatment of azathioprine. She presented with ascites and abdominal pain when she was 36 and the abdominal imaging revealed reduced calibration of hepatic venules and intrahepatic segment of inferior vena cava. Lupus anticoagulant was positive and anti cardiolipin IgM and IgG were positive. Work up for hereditary hypercoagulable states was negative. Thus, the diagnosis was secondary antiphospholipid syndrome where BCS was the first clinical manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Patient was anticoagulated with warfarin and received diuretics for ascites. After the ascites became refractory to diuretics and the patient had multiple vertebral compression fractures due to volume overload secondary to ascites, she was successfully treated with TIPS. When control imaging was performed, 50% of stenosis was observed in the stent. Balloon dilation of the stent was performed. Interventional radiology techniques like TIPS can be used in BCS patients secondary to APS, in cases when medical treatment is insufficient to control complications of portal hypertension. In BCS patients secondary to APS, TIPS enables clinical improvement but due to the presence of endothelial dysfunction in APS patients, there is a risk of shunt dysfunction secondary to thrombosis or stenosis secondary to intimal hyperplasia. Therefore, strict anticoagulation and regular follow up of patients after TIPS is recommended. In cases with stent stenosis, reintervention may be necessary.