Human EEG gamma oscillations in neuropsychiatric disorders


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HERRMANN C., Demiralp T.

CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, cilt.116, sa.12, ss.2719-2733, 2005 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Derleme
  • Cilt numarası: 116 Konu: 12
  • Basım Tarihi: 2005
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.clinph.2005.07.007
  • Dergi Adı: CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.2719-2733

Özet

Due to their small amplitude, the importance of high-frequency EEG oscillations with respect to cognitive functions and disorders is often underestimated as compared to slower oscillations. This article reviews the literature on the alterations of gamma oscillations (about 30-80 Hz) during the course of neuropsychiatric disorders and relates them to a model for the functional role of these oscillations for memory matching. The synchronous firing of neurons in the gamma-band has been proposed to bind multiple features of an object, which are coded in a distributed manner in the brain, and is modulated by cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In certain neuropsychiatric disorders the gamma activity shows significant changes. In schizophrenic patients, negative symptoms correlate with a decrease of gamma responses, whereas a significant increase in gamma amplitudes is observed during positive symptoms such as hallucinations. A reduction is also observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), whereas an increase is found in epileptic patients, probably reflecting both cortical excitation and perceptual distortions such as deja vu phenomena frequently observed in epilepsy. ADHD patients also exhibit increased gamma amplitudes. A hypothesis of a gamma axis of these disorders mainly based on the significance of gamma oscillations for memory matching is formulated. (c) 2005 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All fights reserved.

Due to their small amplitude, the importance of high-frequency EEG oscillations with respect to cognitive functions and disorders is often underestimated as compared to slower oscillations. This article reviews the literature on the alterations of gamma oscillations (about 30–80 Hz) during the course of neuropsychiatric disorders and relates them to a model for the functional role of these oscillations for memory matching. The synchronous firing of neurons in the gamma-band has been proposed to bind multiple features of an object, which are coded in a distributed manner in the brain, and is modulated by cognitive processes such as attention and memory. In certain neuropsychiatric disorders the gamma activity shows significant changes. In schizophrenic patients, negative symptoms correlate with a decrease of gamma
responses, whereas a significant increase in gamma amplitudes is observed during positive symptoms such as hallucinations. A reduction is also observed in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), whereas an increase is found in epileptic patients, probably reflecting both cortical excitation and perceptual distortions such as de´ja` vu phenomena frequently observed in epilepsy. ADHD patients also exhibit increased gamma amplitudes. A hypothesis of a gamma axis of these disorders mainly based on the significance of gamma oscillations for memory matching is formulated.