Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, multifactorial genetic disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and ADHD. There is evidence to suggest that MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms alter the function of the enzyme, causing reduced folate and increased homocysteine levels in plasma. Two polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in a sample of 100 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-diagnosed ADHD and 300 healthy controls using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We did not find any association between MTHFR 677T allele, MTHFR 1298C allele, and ADHD. In addition, there was no genotype association between the MTHFR gene and ADHD (chi(2) = 1.711; df = 2; p = 0.425; chi(2) = 2.946; df = 2; p = 0.229). Our data suggest that neither the MTHFR C677T polymorphism nor the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was associated with ADHD in Turkish children. Thus, the MTHFR gene does not seem to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of ADHD in the cohort studied.