Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tensile bond strength values between polyacid-modified resin composite ("compomer") and resin composite materials under different conditions. Method and materials: There were five experimental groups in the study. In group A, resin composite was placed directly on polyacid-modified resin composite surfaces. In group B, bonding agent was applied to polyacid-modified resin composite surfaces and then resin composite was placed on the compomer. In group C, compomer specimens were stored for 1 week and then resin composite was placed directly on these aged compomers. In group D, compomer specimens were again stored for 1 week, and then the bonding agent and resin composite were applied to the compomer surfaces. In group E, the surfaces of aged (1 week) compomers were roughened before the bonding agent was applied and the resin composite was placed on the prepared surfaces. A statistical analysis of the results was made with the Kruskal-Wallis test method. Results: The mean tensile strength values of the groups were as follows: group A 12.84 MPa; group B = 15.03 MPa; group C = 10.60 MPa; group D = 11.56 MPa; group E = 24.87 MPa. There were statistically significant differences between groups E and A; groups E and C; groups E and D; and groups C and B. Conclusion: Mechanical roughening of a polyacid-modified resin composite surface was found to be the most effective factor in increasing the tensile bond strength between an aged compomer and a resin composite.