Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) caused by a single benign parathyroid adenoma is a common endocrine disorder that is affected by regional differences. Living in different geographical regions reveals differences in the laboratory results and pathological findings, but studies on this subject are not sufficient. The article focuses on biochemical and pathological effects of geographical differences in parathyroid adenoma. In addition, the present study seeks to elaborate on treatment methods and effectiveness of screening in geographical area of Bulgaria and Turkey. Method: In this prospective study, 159 patients were included from 16 centres. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, biochemical markers and pathologic characteristics were analysed and compared between 8 different regions. Results: Patients from Turkish Black Sea had the highest median serum calcium (Ca) level, whereas patients from Eastern Turkey had the lowest median serum phosphorus (P) level. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between Ca, parathormone (PTH) and P levels according to regions. Patients from Eastern Turkey had the highest adenoma weight, while patients from Bulgaria had the lowest adenoma weight. The weight of adenoma showed statistically significant differences between regions (p < 0.001). There was a correlation between adenoma weight and serum PTH level (p = 0.05) and Ca level (p = 0.035). Conclusion: This study has provided a deeper insight into the effect of the regional differences upon clinicopathological changing and biochemical values of pHTP patients with adenoma. Awareness of regional differences will assist in biochemical screening and treatment of this patient group. (c) 2021 Asian Surgical Association and Taiwan Robotic Surgery Association. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).