Background: Alteration in cell-cycle control and apoptosis pathways play important roles in tumorigenesis. Caspase-8 (CASP8) is a member of the cysteine protease family, that is implicated in apoptosis regulation. The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of CASP8 D302H gene polymorphism in the tumor development. Materials and Methods: A total of 91 patients with brain tumors (including 39 meningioma and 52 glioma cases) and 114 healthy controls were included in the study. We investigated CASP8 D302H polymorphism by using polymorphism chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: The CASP8 D302H polymorphism genotypic frequencies were not statistically significantly different between meningioma cases and controls, with frequencies of GG, GC and CC genotypes of 71.2%, 19,2% and 9.6%; and 57.9%, 36.8% and 5.3%, respectively. The GG/CC genotypic frequencies were significantly increased in patients with glioma patients compared to controls (p=0.023) (chi(2)=5.149, odds ratio [OR]=1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.054-1.551). According to tumor characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences within the groups with astrocytic, oligo astrocytic tumors and oligodentriogliomas. Conclusion: D302H polymorphism of CASP8 gene may be associated with increased risk of glioma but larger study groups in different ethnic populations are needed to better elucidate the role of CASP8 gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of primary brain tumors.