Health risk assessment in sediment cores: A preliminary study in Erdek and Bandırma Bays, Türkiye

ARSLAN KAYA T. N., SARI E., Gül M., Özen Ç.

Regional Studies in Marine Science, vol.75, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 75
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.rsma.2024.103571
  • Journal Name: Regional Studies in Marine Science
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS
  • Keywords: Core sediment, Erdek and Bandırma Bays, Heavy metal, Human health risk, Oceanography
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


The contents of heavy metals in the core sediments of Erdek and Bandırma Bays were investigated to determine the pollution level, metal distribution and the associated human risks. It is very important to assess the concentration level of metal pollutants and health risk to adults and children. Therefore, metal analysis, geoaccumulation index (Igeo) contamination degree (Cdeg), modified contamination degree (mCdeg), toxic unit (TU), toxic risk index (TRI), modified hazard quotient (mHQ), and human risk assessment were carried out. The measured metals in the sediments were in the range of Al: 0.71–6.5%, Fe: 0.73–6.7%, Mn:100–923 mg/kg, As: 0.5–28 mg/kg, Co: 0.1–21 mg/kg, Cr: 31–595 mg/kg, Cu: 0.1–58 mg/kg, Ni: 11–196 mg/kg, Pb: 3–72 mg/kg, V: 19–159 mg/kg, Zn: 6–255 mg/kg, Hg: 0.03–1 mg/kg. Based on the Igeo, the mean values were < 0, except for Hg in cores MD72 (0.1), BD1 (0.9), and ER1 (0.2), which means that both bays are “unpolluted to moderately contaminated” with Hg. The mean mCdeg values of Erdek and Bandırma Bays sediments were very low contaminated with selected metals. The mean values of ΣTUs values for the cores (BK1, MD72, BD1 and ER1) ranged from 2.8 to 1.0, 4.9–0.5, 5.8–0.5, and 2.9–0.7, respectively. The mHQ-Hg and -Ni values indicated moderate to considerable significant contamination to living organisms, while it was for -Zn, -Cu, and –Pb indicated low to very low contamination to living organisms. There was no toxic risk to the marine ecosystem according to the TRI value (<5). Based on the human risk assessment using to the Hazard Quotient (HQ) that recommended by the US EPA, there are no adverse health effects by ingestion and dermal contact. Moreover, there are no non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic harm to adults and children. The results of this study will serve as a preliminary baseline human health risk assessment for Bandırma and Erdek Bays.