Infections, drugs, malignancies, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity may cause neutropenia. In primary autoimmune neutropenia, anti-neutrophil antibodies (ANeuA) bind to membrane antigens of neutrophils, which give rise to peripheral destruction of neutrophils. However, it is not always easy to detect these antibodies. This study aims to investigate the etiology of neutropenia, and at the same time to evaluate the immune mechanisms by ANeuA testing using granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test. In our study, 310 neutropenic patients who were between 3 months and 18 years of age were evaluated. ANeuA screening tests were performed in 108 neutropenic patients (group 1), and these patients were divided into 2 subgroups as persistent neutropenia (group 1P, n=12) and recovered neutropenia (group 1R, n=96). Besides, a control group in the same age range was formed, consisting of 39 non-neutropenic children (group 2). ANeuA serum levels were also checked in these groups, and no statistically significant difference could be found between groups 1 and 2, or between groups 1P and 1R, regarding ANeuA levels. As a conclusion, our study was the first comprehensive research in Turkey investigating the large-scale etiology of neutropenia. Moreover, while ANeuA screening tests did not provide sufficient insight for immune neutropenia, we argue that it is not necessary for routine use and that further research in the etiology of neutropenia is required.