Familial Nutrition and Physical Activity Habits in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Tarcin G., GÜNEŞ KAYA D., Karakas H., EVLİYAOĞLU S. O.



Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional habits and exercise patterns in children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) at the familial level and investigate their relationship with glycemic control. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 6-18-year-old patients with T1DM and non-diabetic children from the dietitian outpatient clinic. The Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool (FNPA) was administered to all parents to determine their nutrition and exercise habits. The participants were divided into three subgroups based on their body mass index percentile (underweight, normal weight, overweight/ obese), and children with T1DM were further divided into two subgroups based on their Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value as good and poor glycemic control. FNPA scores were compared between the groups/subgroups using t-test/one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Additionally, a multiple linear regression model was developed to identify the determinants of the FNPA score. Results: A total of 240 children (129 with T1DM) were included in the study. Children with T1DM had significantly higher FNPA scores than non-diabetic children (p=0.013). When the analysis was restricted to subgroups within the same weight status, this difference was significant only between the overweight/obese subgroups (p=0.032). The mean FNPA score of children with T1DM who had good glycemic control was significantly higher than those with poor glycemic control (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate the FNPA scale in children with T1DM and demonstrates the relationship between family nutrition and physical activity habits with glycemic control. These results highlight the significance of promoting proper nutrition and physical activity at the family level to achieve treatment goals.