Classic Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is exceedingly rare in children from the Mediterranean Basin, despite the high prevalence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection in this region. We hypothesized that rare single-gene inborn errors of immunity to HHV-8 may underlie classic KS in childhood. We investigated a child with no other unusually severe infectious or tumoral phenotype who died from disseminated KS at two years of age. Whole-exome sequencing in the patient revealed a homozygous splice-site mutation in STIM1, the gene encoding stromal interaction molecule 1, which regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry. STIM1 mRNA splicing, protein production, and Ca2+ influx were completely abolished in EBV-transformed B cell lines from the patient, but were rescued by the expression of wild-type STIM1. Based on the previous discovery of STIM1 deficiency in a single family with a severe T cell immunodeficiency and the much higher risk of KS in individuals with acquired T cell deficiencies, we conclude that STIM1 T cell deficiency precipitated the development of lethal KS in this child upon infection with HHV-8. Our report provides the first evidence that isolated classic KS in childhood may result from single-gene defects and provides proof-of-principle that whole-exome sequencing in single patients can decipher the genetic basis of rare inborn errors.