Isoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Glaucium corniculatum var. corniculatum and Glaucium grandiflorum subsp. refractum var. torquatum with bioactivity studies

Kusman Saygi T., TAN N., Alim Toraman G. Ö., Gurer C. U., Tugay O., TOPÇU G.

Pharmaceutical Biology, vol.61, no.1, pp.907-917, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 61 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13880209.2023.2218881
  • Journal Name: Pharmaceutical Biology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.907-917
  • Keywords: aporphine, glaucine, Glaucium, glauciumoline, protopine, structure elucidation
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


Context: The genus Glaucium Mill., one of the important Papaveraceae family plants, is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids and distributed worldwide. Objective: Isolation and identification of bioactive alkaloids from Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. & Huet. subsp. refractum (Nabelek) Mory var. torquatum (Cullen) Mory and G. corniculatum (L.) Rudolph var. corniculatum (Aslan 2012), and investigation of their antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Materials and methods: The aerial parts of each plant were dried, powdered, and percolated with methanol, then each extract was fractionated between 50% aqueous acetic acid and petroleum. Their aqueous acidic layer was adjusted to pH 7–8 with NH4OH and extracted with chloroform, the extract was subjected to CC separation and isolation. Structures of the isolated alkaloids were elucidated by 1D and 2D-NMR and mass spectral analyses. The alkaloid extracts and their pure alkaloids were tested for anti-cholinesterase (AChE and BuChE) and antioxidant (ABTS, CUPRAC, β-carotene linoleic acid tests) activities in vitro. Results: Methanol extracts of Glaucium grandiflorum subsp. refractum var. torquatum and G. corniculatum var. corniculatum afforded a novel compound glauciumoline and seven known isoquinoline alkaloids three of which have an aporphine-type and the other five have a protopine-type skeleton. Among them, trans-protopinium (7) and cis-protopinium (8) were isolated from a Glaucium species for the first time. Tertiary amine extracts (TAEs) of both plants showed very strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The TAE of the plants also showed strong antioxidant activity while the isolated alkaloids showed no meaningful activity in the anticholinesterase and antioxidant tests. Discussion and conclusions: Glaucium species are considered promising therapeutic agents in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.