MASCC/ISOO Annual Meeting on Supportive Care in Cancer, District Of Columbia, United States Of America, 22 - 24 June 2017, pp.1
Effects of denosumab and bisphosphonates in prostate cancer rat models with chronic gingival inflammation
Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a significant complication of antiresorptive medications, such as bisphosphonates and denosumab. Invasive dental procedures (e.g. tooth extraction), use of prosthesis or periodontal disease, may increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw.
The aim of the project is to investigate effect of denosumab and bisphosphonate on development of osteonecrosis in alveolar bone when chronic gingival inflammation is present.
40 male Cophenagen rats divided into four groups; 1. Group (B: bisphosphonates), 2. group (D: denosumab), 3. group (C(+): control and injected with salin ) and 4. group (C(-): without prostate cancer control). Ligatures were placed and immobilized around right maxillary 1st molars. One week after prostate cancer induced by ortotropic process, injections of group Z, D and K(+) were performed intraperitoneally once a week and the injections were continued for 3 weeks. After 4 weeks the rats were sacrificed.
Osteopontin levels of group B was statistically higher from all groups. Parathormone levels of group B was higher than all groups but only statistically higher from group C(+) (p=0.010). Osteocalcin levels of group C(-) were found distinctly lower than all groups. As a result of histopathologic examination only a rat from group B showed, alveolar bone necrosis (16.66%).
Our study showed that the bisphosphonates may cause osteonecrosis in the presence of chronic inflammation without any invasive procedure like dental extraction. However, there was no significant osteonecrosis formation was detected in the denosumab-treated group. There is a need for further clinical studies with denosumab.