NRAMP1 gene has multiple pleiotropic effects on macrophage activation pathways. These pleiotropic effects may increase resistance to infections such as tuberculosis (TB), but may also lead to susceptibility of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It has been hypothesized that allele 3 would be associated with autoimmune diseases, whereas allele 2 would be associated with infectious diseases, and genetic factors that enhanced survival in the epidemics of TB might have led to susceptibility for the development of RA. We analysed four NRAMP1 gene polymorphisms including 5' promoter (GT)(n) (rs34448891), INT4 (469 + 14G/C) (rs3731865), 3'UTR (1729 + 55del4) (rs17235416) and D543N (codon 543, Asp to Asn) (rs17235409) in 112 patients with TB, 98 patients with RA, 80 healthy controls for TB and 122 healthy controls for RA using ARMS-PCR and PCR-RFLP. We found a significant association between INT4 and RA (P = 0.004, odds ratio: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.24-3.41), but no significant differences between 5' promoter, D543N, 3'UTR polymorphisms and RA. There were no associations between NRAMP1 gene polymorphisms and TB. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between NRAMP1 polymorphisms and rheumatoid factor positivity and erosive disease in RA and localization of TB. INT4 polymorphism may be associated with RA in Turkish patients.