Cell and molecular toxicity of lanthanum nanoparticles: are there possible risks to humans?

Malvandi A. M. , Shahba S., Mohammadipour A., Rastegar-Moghaddam S. H. , Abudayyak M.

NANOTOXICOLOGY, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/17435390.2021.1940340
  • Journal Name: NANOTOXICOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, BIOSIS, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts


Lanthanum nanoparticles are widely used in industry, agriculture, and biomedicine. Over 900 kg of lanthanum is annually released into the environment only in Europe, 50 times higher than the metals, mercury, and cadmium's environmental spread. Human health risk associated with long-term exposure to the abundant lanthanum nanoparticles is a concerning environmental issue. Due to lanthanum's ability to disrupt the main biological barriers and interrupt various cells' hemostasis, they seem to cause severe disruptions to various tissues. This review opens a new perspective regarding the cellular and molecular interaction of nanosized and ionic lanthanum with the possible toxicity on the nervous system and other tissues that would show lanthanum nanoparticles' potential danger to follow in toxicological science.