The aim of this study was to investigate Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in Turkish cattle in the Marmara region which borders the European Union (EU). For this, cattle brought to abattoirs in Istanbul were analysed. The high risk group were selected and therefore 384 cattle above 2 years old were included in the study. They were primarily examined for the presence of any clinical signs of nervous system and also other clinical disorders. The whole brains were taken and analysed for the presence of vacuolar degeneration and prion protein by PLATELIA BSE test kit. Only 5 cattle were found to be nervous and showed aggressive behaviour. There were no cattle showing incoordination or other neurological disorders. Cysts were observed in 3 brains. Histopathologically, no vacuolar degeneration indicative of BSE was found in any cattle examined. However, in 8 brains, few vacuoles were observed in neurons in sections taken from the brain, cerebellum, medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis. Slight mononuclear cell infiltration in 9 brain, intensed mononuclear cell infiltration in 1 brain, haemorrhages in 5 brains and gliosis in 11 brains were also found. No infective prion was detected by ELISA in samples taken from 384 cattle brain.