A 919 MHz-923 MHz, 21 dBm CMOS Power Amplifier With Bias Modulation Linearization Technique Achieving PAE of 29% for LoRa Application

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Rawat A. S., Rajendran J., Mariappan S., Shasidharan P., Kumar N., Yarman B. S.

IEEE ACCESS, vol.10, pp.79365-79378, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/access.2022.3193689
  • Journal Name: IEEE ACCESS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.79365-79378
  • Keywords: Adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR), bias circuit, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), error vector magnitude (EVM), intermodulation distortion (IMD), long-range (LoRa), power amplifier, radio frequency power amplifier (RFPA), third-order intercept point (OIP3), HIGH-EFFICIENCY, ENVELOPE ELIMINATION, SUPPLY MODULATOR, RF, LINEARITY, COMPENSATION, IMPROVEMENT, PREDICTION, DISTORTION, INJECTION
  • Istanbul University Affiliated: Yes


This paper presents a bias modulation linearization technique for a 919 MHz -923 MHz CMOS power amplifier which employs driver voltage modulation and main amplifier split bias. Through the proposed linearization technique, it is observed that the peak third-order intercept point (OIP3) across the output power is shifting according to the bias conditions of the split-bias power amplifier (SBPA). The third-order transconductance (g(m3)) terms are suppressed at the output by phase cancellation achieved by optimization of the bias voltages of the PA. A high dynamic range bias circuit is integrated at the driver and split main to enhance the linearity of the CMOS PA, eradicating the need for pre-distortion linearizers. The two-stage SBPA is designed and fabricated in a 180 nm CMOS process with six-metal layers and a chip size of 1.820 x 1.771 mm(2) to operate at the supply voltage of 3.3 V. The bias voltages of both driver and split main stages are varied from 0 V to 2.0 V with a linear step size of 0.2 V. The proposed SBPA delivers a saturated output power (P-out) of 27 dBm with maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of 44.4% and peak 01P3 of 39 dBm. A maximum linear P-out of 21 dBm with 29% PAE is achieved at an adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) of -30 dBc and 4% error vector magnitude (EVM), satisfying the LoRa specifications.