APOBEC3 Hypermutations in HIV-1 Infected Cases in Turkey

SAYAN M., Simsek F., Ceran N., Dokuzocuz B., Eraksoy H.

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.47, no.3, pp.482-492, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 47 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.5150
  • Title of Journal : MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI
  • Page Numbers: pp.482-492


Host genetic factors may play an effective role on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide like-3) proteins are cellular antiviral proteins which inhibits HIV replication in the absence of vif (virion infectivity factor). In this study, we aimed to determine the APOBEC 3G/F hypermutations in HIV-1 strains isolated in Turkey. A total of 515 HIV-1 infected patients between June 2009 - February 2012 were included in the study. Three hundred ninety four cases were newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive patients [349 male, 45 female; medain age (range): 37.1 (2-69) years; median CD4(+) T-cell count (range): 340 (1-1660) mm(3); median HIV-RNA load (range): 5.76 + E5 (8.7 + E2-9.4 + E6) IU/ml] and 121 were under HAART therapy [99 male, 22 female; median age (range): 40.7 (20-70) years; median CD4(+) T-cell count (range): 195 (6-720) mm3; median HIV-RNA load (range): 5.4 + E5 (1.37 + E3-1.07 + E7) IU/ml]. APOBEC 3G/F hypermutations in HIV-1 pol sequences (reverse transcriptase; codons 41-238 and protease; codons 1-99) analysed by nested RT-PCR and direct sequencing techniques. APOBEC 3G/F hypermutations have been determined by using of HIVdb-Stanford algorithm. The prevalence of overall APOBEC 3G/F hypermutations was 2.5% (13/515) in HIV-1 pol gene sequences in study group, and the rates were 2% (8/394) and 4.1% (5/121) in antiretroviral naive and treatment groups, respectively. However, the location and marker hypermutations of determined APOBEC in the HIV-1 pol gene sequences were RT and 3G in the Turkish patients. The hypermutated HIV-1 strains identified in HIV-1 infected patients may facilitate our understanding the nature and the consequences of HIV-1 infections. Moreover, investigations of the motif and frequency of APOBEC 3G/F hypermutations in HIV-1 proviral DNA samples and understanding their relationships with HIV-1 subtypes in Turkish patients would be beneficial.