Compressive strength, thermal conductivity coefficient, and porosimetric properties of alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortars containing silica aerogel were investigated experimentally in this study. For this purpose, slag mortar mixtures at 0.75% and 1.0% aerogel content ratios were prepared, and these mortar mixtures were activated with lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) at 0.03% and 1.50% dosage rates. Mortar samples were exposed to curing process in water for 2, 7, and 28 days, and the samples, which completed the curing stage, were subjected to the compressive strength test. The porosimetry test and the thermal conductivity coefficient measurement were carried out following the compressive strength test on 28-day samples. The varying aerogel content rate in the mixtures and the effects of the dosage of Li2CO3 on the gel, capillary, and macropore distributions, and the effect of changing porosimetric properties on compressive strength and thermal conductivity coefficient were analyzed in detail. Experimental studies have shown that AAS mortars including an optimum 0.75% aerogel content rate and 0.03% Li2CO3 activation provided a compressive strength of 34.1 MPa and a thermal conductivity coefficient of 1.32 W/mK. Aerogel addition provides a partial compressive strength increase at 7- and 28-day samples while it also causes maximum strength loss of 5.0% at 2-day samples.